“Alert” stem cells speed damage response, say Stanford researchers | Scope Blog
Courtesy of Dr. Xiaofang Wang and Dr. Ren-he Xu, ImStem Biotechnology, Inc. Courtesy of Dr. Xiaofang Wang and Dr. Ren-he Xu, ImStem Biotechnology, Inc. Video Transcript The two studies together "speak to the changing role of stem cells and their potential as treatment strategies for MS," said Tim Coetzee with the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, an advocacy group. The idea of using stem cells in MS has been around for a while, but these two studies overcome some of the challenges of finding a therapy that can be consistent and effective for many people. "They set the stage quite impressively for potential work in humans," he said, with clinical trials likely within the next few years.
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aThey were very clearly biochemically different from completely dormant, quiescent cells, and from fully activated stem cells. We termed this state an aalerta state of quiescence.a These alert stem cells were able to respond to subsequent, nearby damage much more quickly and efficiently than completely quiescent cells, the researchers found. They also learned that the stem cells response encompasses several tissue types in addition to the one in which the injury occurred. More from the release: Surprisingly, the muscle stem cells also became alert in response to bone or minor skin injuries a injuries in which the cells are not known to play any regenerative role. Conversely, other non-muscle adult stem cells, including hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and mesenchymal stem cells in the muscle, became alert in response to muscle damage. aIt is clear that this alert state is a systemic response,a said Rando. The findings help explain some long-standing questions about the cell cycle, in which cycling cells co-exist with other, quiescent cells. As Rando, who also directs Stanfords Glenn Laboratories for the Biology of Aging , explained: Researchers studying cellular quiescence in the laboratory decades ago noticed that, when you withdraw growth factors, cells stop dividing. They observed that there were different ways a cell could exist in that state.
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Stem Cell Therapy Cures Type 1 Diabetes in Mice - MedicineNet
"This is a theme we've seen a few times recently. Beta cells are plastic and can respond and expand when the environment is right," said Andrew Rakeman, a senior scientist in beta cell regeneration at the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF). "But, there's some work still to be done. How do we get from this biological mechanism to a more conventional therapy?" Results of the study were published online May 28 in Diabetes. The exact cause of type 1 diabetes, a chronic disease sometimes called juvenile diabetes, remains unclear. It's thought to be an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and damages insulin-producing beta cells (found in islet cells in the pancreas) to the point where they no longer produce insulin, or they produce very little insulin.
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